Maritime Policy & Safety

Maritime policy and compliance

Maritime policy issue cover a broad field from e.g. taxation to regulatory changes driven by environmental, social or safety/security concerns in shipping and ports.

We have a proven track record of high-impact research and policy advice in several European countries already since the 1990s, and we continue to keep abreast with contemporary regulatory changes.

Compliance with international conventions and regulations will require a growing amount of attention and resources in both policymaking, enforcement and in the private sector. Examples of the main regulatory changes or additions by IMO and/or the EU affecting stakeholders nationally and internationally include e.g. the following:

  • Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)
  • Ship recycling
  • Ballast water treatment
  • Gaseous emissions (e.g. SOx, NOx)
  • Cargo hold washing water treatment
  • International Ship and Port Facility Security Code ISPS
  • Network and Information Security directive (NIS by EU)

How shipowners have adapted to sulphur regulations – evidence from Finnish seaborne trade
T Solakivi, S Laari, T Kiiski, J Töyli, L Ojala – Case Studies on Transport, 2019
From the beginning of 2020, the IMO regulation limiting ships’ fuel sulphur content to 0.5% will become effective. This limit has been preceded by the Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) already since 2015. The paper studies the impact of these on Finnish shipowners.

The impact of ice class on the economics of wet and dry bulk shipping in the Arctic waters
T Solakivi, T Kiiski, L Ojala – Maritime Policy & Management, 2018
Shipping in Arctic waters is subject to technical requirements posed by harsh ambient conditions. Vessels operating in ice-infested waters need reinforced hulls and more powerful engines, for example. This paper analyses the additional cost of ice imposed on wet and dry bulk shipping.

On the cost of ice: estimating the premium of Ice Class container vessels
T Solakivi, T Kiiski, L Ojala – Maritime Economics & Logistics, 2017
Cargo vessels navigating ice-infested waters have to comply with additional requirements including a strengthened hull and additional engine power, modifications that affect their operational economics. This paper analyses the additional cost of ice imposed on container shipping.

Merenkulun kansainvälisen ilmasto- ja ympäristösääntelyn vaikutukset Suomen elinkeinoelämälle; Repka, Ojala et al. (2017) Reports by the Council of State

Prof. Ojala is also engaged in several on-going maritime policy projects, such as:

MERLOG (2018-2019) Merenkulun logistiikan kehittäminen, a foresight study looking at possible fairway due structures in the 2020s; commissioned by the Ministry of Transport and Communications and its subordinated Agencies

MEROS (2018-2019) Merenkulun osaamisen kehittäminen, a foresight study looking at current and future skill and competency levels in the Finnish Maritime Cluster ; commissioned by the Council of the State

Maritime and seaport safety & security

Important topics here include implementation and enforcement of safety and security standards and regulations, communication between key actors, the use of risk analysis methods and adoption of new technologies.

Leakage of hazardous materials, fire on a vessel, oil spill as well as explosion of gases or chemicals are types of disastrous events that may occur both in and around seaports as well at sea with wider-reaching consequences for people, property and the environment.

We have expertise in these questions both at firm, industry and national levels from both Ministry and the Competent Authority points-of-view from several European countries since the 1990s, with contemporary know-how on related regulatory issues and operational practices.

Current State of Risk Assessment in Seaports: An Empirical Study
A Nagi, M Indorf, C Singer-Neumann, Ojala, L. in: Logistik im Wandel der Zeit, 2019 – Springer Verlag
Seaports are critical links in global supply chains and international logistics networks. They are considered to be a link of cooperation between countries, including transport, logistics, tourism and energy.

Prof. Lauri Ojala is also engaged in several large maritime and seaport safety & security projects, such as:

OIL SPILL Project Director (2019-2021), a 2.5-year and 2 M€ project on combatting oil spills in coastal areas and shallow waters in the Baltic Sea Region

HAZARD Project Director (2016-2019), a 3-year and 4 M€ seaport safety & security project in the Baltic Sea Region

C.A.S.H. Project Director (2009-2012), a 3-year and 3+ M€ project on Safety and Security in international road freight transport in the Baltic Sea Region

DaGoB Project Director (2006-2009), a 3-year and 2+ M€ project on Transport of Dangerous Goods in the Baltic Sea Region